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Case Studies


This standard describes requirements and tests for filter materials used for cleaning precipitation discharged from zinc roofs, copper roofs and paved areas (e.g., roads). These filter materials are used as technical soil filters according to ÖNORM B 2506-2 as well as technical filter materials according to the specifications ÖWAV RB 45 issued by the Austrian Water and Waste Management Association (ÖWAV). Methods are defined for different surface conditions and classes of origin.


The objective of this case study is to demonstrate how standards can be used for wastewater treatment and re-use. This supports the achievement of SDG target 6.3 on improving water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing the release of hazardous chemicals and materials.


The Cameroon Government being a member of the United Nation’s Organisation (UNO) joint the rest of its members to adopt the seventeen (17) sustainable development goals in 2015.

Following the adoption  of  the  sustainable  development  goals (SDG) by the United Nations, the Cameroonian Government developed a strategy document for growth and employment (DSCE) based on these SDGs and another which contained the Cameroon’s vision by 2035, now replaced by the National Development Strategy 2020...


The objective of the case study is to demonstrate how international standards such as the EN 15975- 2 standard (Safety of drinking water supply - Guidelines for risk  management  and critical events) and ISO 14000 have been used to develop national regulations for mandatory Water Safety Plans to improve prevention and response to water quality and quantity issues.


The objective of this case study is to demonstrate how (national) standardization can be used to increase ecological water quality. This supports the achievement of the SDG’s target 6.6 on protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.


The objective of the case study is to demonstrate how Samoa National Drinking Water Standards which are grounded upon the WHO Global Guidelines for Drinking  Water  Quality,  have  been used to monitor water quality compliance  performance  of  utilities and water service providers.  This  directly  contributes  to  SDG target 6.1 on  achieving  universal  and  equitable  access  to  safe and affordable drinking  water  for  all  by  ensuring  that  the  people of Samoa receive good quality and...


Though rapid demography and lack of infrastructures,   countries have a vast impact on CO2 emissions and waste. The Republic of Senegal has the ambition   to   ensure   safe   and   affordable sanitation for all towards 2035 in line with SDG 6. To do so, Public and private actors are working hand in hand to develop or adopt a series of standards on Non-sewered Sanitation Systems (NSS) and Faecal Sludge Treatment Units (FSTU). These standards brought innovative and sustainable solutions   to  ...

South Africa

The objective of the case study is to show how South African standards – (SABS 241), which are based on the WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality - have been used to develop revised indicators that track both the provision of infrastructure and the sustainability of the  services  for  the  provision  of  water  supply. This allowed the shift from indicators supporting the Millennium Development Goals to indicators supporting the Sustainable Development Goals. This is directly in support of...


Respect for natural  resources  and  the  environment  means  that the purification and cleaning of urban wastewater is a fundamental part of the process of the integral water cycle. The dumping of non-biodegradable or difficult-to-disintegrate or containing plastics products  deposited  directly  in  the  domestic toilet leads to the obstruction and deterioration of the sanitation network and the degradation of water resources. Thus, Spanish Standard UNE 149002 Acceptance criteria for...


The objective of the case study is to show how the Thai Quality Standard on assessing village water supply systems (QSVS) - based on WHO Drinking Water Quality Guidelines – were used to develop a self-assessment tool.


The drinking water service is governed by the following series of international standards:

  • ISO 24510, Activities relating to drinking water and sanitation services - Guidelines for the evaluation and improvement of service to users
  • ISO 24511, Activities relating to drinking water and sanitation services - Guidelines for the management of public sanitation services and for the evaluation of the services provided
  • ISO 24512, Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services -...

The objective of the case study is to illustrate how the  Water Footprint standard can help raise awareness on  water  use  and water scarcity and  promote  the  transition  towards  sustainable water use. To achieve the SDG 6 goal of ‘universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all’, we first need to thoroughly account for the ways water is currently used and polluted by human activity.


The objective of this case study is to demonstrate how standards
– in particular, those based on IEC international standards - were used to improve the system of energy auctions. The implementation of the  revised  standards-based  instructions  must be followed by auction participants. This allowed a substantial increase in the number of compliant projects submitted and better management of submission, analysis and approvals by the Energy Research Office of Brazil. This directly supports the...


Many Danish organizations have successfully reduced their own climate and environmental impact by using standards. The companies  emphasize  increased  resource  and  energy  efficiency in internal processes as well as increased use of climate-friendly materials.

The Energy Management standard, EN/ISO 5001:2018, helps companies create systems and processes that optimize and reduce resource and energy consumption. The standard has direct relevance to the achievement of  Goal  7:  Affordable  and...


The main objective of this case study is to show how generating green electricity can be  utilized  in  achieving  the  national  social and economical development. The   international   standards, mainly IEC standards, are introduced in the Solar Energy Plants Grid Connection Code and the Egyptian Transmission Grid Code. This directly contributes to the achievement of SDG 7.2 “By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.”


The objective of the case study is to show how international and European standards play a crucial role for the industry  in  many cases as well as in meeting regulatory requirements. National regulations promote energy efficiency  and  energy-saving  policy by applying to the international and European standards.


The objective of this case study is to show how Indian standard, IS 16711 on Low Voltage Direct Current (LVDC) technologies has enabled the scaling-up of access to electricity for the millions of people. Electricity is a key enabler of socio-economic development. Sustainable Development Goal 7 (Affordable & Clean Energy) attempts to ‘ensure access to affordable, sustainable, reliable and modern energy for all’ and specifically a time-bound target for delivery is stated through Target 7.1 which...


Italy has identified this specific case relating to gas plants due to the relevance of it being a well-working and long-lasting synergy and partnership between legislation and standardization. Since technical standards support the regulations in this sector while keeping their voluntary status,  they  provide  a  ‘coregulation’  tool that is valid and relevant not only at the national level but at any level.


The objective of  this  case  study  is  to  demonstrate  how  the Malawi Standards on biomass cookstoves have contributed to sustainable development by   standardizing   cookstoves,   which use much less firewood than traditional stoves and is easy and convenient to use helping households to  avoid  the  use  of  open fires which both pollute the air in and outside the home.


The objective of the case  study  is  to  show  how  the  United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) is being used by the  National  Hydrocarbons  Commission  of  Mexico  in order to sustainably develop natural gas deposits, so as to ensure that the national energy policy is well aligned with the SDGs. Additionally, this will  improve  the  consistency  and  coherence  in the capture of social and economic value, including tangible and intangible aspects of diverse resources;...


The W+ Standard™ is a unique certification label developed by WOCAN that endorses projects that create increased social and economic benefits for women participating in economic development or environment projects, including those   that provide renewable energy technologies, time and labour-saving devices, forest and agriculture activities, and employment opportunities.


The number of solar panels in  urban  areas  is  growing  rapidly. Local storage of energy is a crucial condition for the successful transition to renewable energy sources in urban areas.

The case study for the operation of battery energy storage systems resulted in the draft of a new standard: NEN 4288. It sets requirements for the safe operation of battery energy storage systems, which are  sometimes  referred  to  as  ‘urban  batteries’. This is an addition to NEN 3140, Operation of...


Better Biomass certification is used by organizations to demonstrate that  the  biomass  they  produce,  process,  trade  or use meets broadly accepted international sustainability  criteria. These criteria have been established by a multi-stakeholder process with private companies, civil society, government, academia and other interested  parties.  This  process  has  been open and transparent for all parties concerned. The criteria have been agreed based on consensus.

North Macedonia

The case study details the benefits of effective implementation of an energy management system for industry, by training representatives of the energy teams of several companies in essential implementation of the energy standards in accordance to ISO 50001. This training contributes to the building of national capacities by boosting the awareness of industries that require energy efficiency improvements through structured approaches with clearly defined standards.


The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate the importance of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), which have been used to track the energy efficiency compliance of various appliances and equipment.


The objective of this case study is to demonstrate how ASTM standards, regarding alternative and renewable fuels  such  as ethanol and biodiesel for road vehicle use, are used in Peru, the United States and Zimbabwe to reduce the use of fossil fuels. Standards were critical in evaluating the safety of alternatives, promoting commercial success and encouraging  regulator  and public acceptance. Their adoption by the regulator resulted in an increase in the use of local forms of energy and helped...


Spanish Royal Decree (RD) 56/2016 on energy audits and accreditation of energy service providers and energy audits partially transposes the European Directive 2012/27/UE on energy efficiency. This RD defines the requirements for an energy audit but, in parallel, makes use of the European Standards EN 16247 series on energy audits in a similar way as in the “new approach” legislation. If an  energy  audit  proves  that  standards have been complied with, it is considered that  the  energy  audit...


Approximately around 2013, the Swedish Standards Body (SIS) started discussions with the Swedish  Energy  Agency  to  secure their interest and involvement in the  standardization  work  in  the field of application  for  light  and  lighting.  The  main  objective  was to gain their  understanding  of  the  potential  energy  savings  that the use of standards can bring to society.


The objective of the case study is to show how international standards on Energy Efficiency have been used by the State Commission of Ukraine on Mineral Resources to conduct a preliminary analysis to promote the development of alternative, nonconventional, energy sources including thermal waters in the region of Carpathia.  This  directly  contributes  to  the  achievement of SDG 7.2 “By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix”.

As one of the largest  corporate  renewable  energy  purchasers  in the United States (U.S.), Bank of America has been in the top 10 of the  U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency's  (EPA) ‘National Top 100’ list since 2018. This  list,  administered  by  the  EPA’s Green Power Partnership, ranks the largest corporate and municipal renewable energy  purchasers  in  the  country.  Since 2019, Bank of America’s portfolio included renewable energy certificates (RECs) that were certified by Green-e...


The objective of this case is to demonstrate the use of international design standards in national building regulations. The case will specifically address the application of the Eurocodes, which are standards specifying structural design. International design standards are used to fulfil one of the main purposes of the building regulation, namely, to ensure that buildings are structurally sound and thus safe for people to use.


The case study shows how the Government of Egypt has used standards such as the ISO 14813-1:2015 on “Intelligent transport systems” to enhance transport safety, security and  mobility  on  a total of  6000KMs  of  key  highways  and  transportation  routes  in the country.


Standards made it possible to construct the world’s highest timber building, Mjøstårnet, in just under four  years.  Moelven Limtre’s strategic use of standards helped to reduce the construction time and halve the engineering design costs for the project.


Mustad Eiendom works hard to manage its 330,000 square meters of property as greenly as possible. The standard for environmental management, ISO 14001, has played  a  vital  role here and helped the company significantly reduce its energy consumption. It is also benefiting the bottom line.


Modern cities are the driving force of the economy, development and innovation centers, space for social initiatives and involvement. They have the most significant impact on the environment, climate and the comfort of our lives. That is why it is so important to properly plan and define priorities that will ensure sustainable development for the city. With the predicted increase in the number of people living in urban areas to 5 billion by 2030, effective urban planning  and  management...

Russian Federation

2018, Moscow initiated a partnership with ITU to implement  the United for Smart Sustainable Cities (U4SSC) Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) on smart sustainable cities. These KPIs are based on Recommendation ITU-T Y.4903 on ‘Key   performance indicators for  smart  sustainable  cities  to  assess  the  achievement of  sustainable  development  goals.  Moscow  utilized  this  standard to address the three  key  dimensions  of  Economy,  Environment, and Society and Culture, in compliance  with...


In 2015, Singapore began collaborating with the ITU to implement the United for Smart Sustainable Cities (U4SSC) Key Performance Indicators (KPI) on smart  sustainable  cities  and  refine  them  with the help of other UN agencies. These KPIs are based on an ITU international standard (ITU-T Y.4903). Singapore launched   the ITU KPI pilot project, which addressed a variety of subjects including transport,  home  and  environment,  business productivity, health and enabled ageing, and public...


The objective of this case study is to show how the administration of the City of València(Spain) has used a number of standards, including ISO 37120 and ITU/United for Smart Sustainable Cities (U4SSC) Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), to  develop  valuable data on an open platform and municipal  and  citizen  dashboards. This allowed breaking information silos in the administration, leading to integrated, transparent, and enhanced decision management. This supports several indicators under SDG...


The objective of this case study is to show how the City of Pully (Switzerland) has used the key  performance  indicators  of  the United for Smart Sustainable Cities (U4SSC) to identify the city’s strengths, opportunities for development and challenges. This programme supports several indicators under SDG 11;  in particular, SDG 11.3: “By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and   capacity   for   participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management...

United Arab Emirates

The administration of Dubai emphasizes that technology is an essential building block for improving quality of life. In this regard, Smart Dubai  does  not  consider  technology  as  an  end goal but rather as a means to achieve sustainability.

Dubai has established a group of objectives that focus on happiness and quality of life, as defined by the overarching Dubai Plan 2021.